GEOLINKS International Conference 2021, Book 1
ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES DURING MINING OF FELDSPAR DEPOSITS IN UKRAINE
Dr. Geol.-Mineral. Sci., Dr. Geogr. Sci., Dr. Eng. Sci., Prof. Georgii Rudko, Assoc. Prof. Ph.D. Mariia Kurylo, Ph.D. Student Maksym Ozerko
Possible negative impacts on the environment during mining of feldspar deposits with open-pit and underground mine are defined. The main changes have been identified, which are as follows: air pollution, soil destructions, change of relief, a local decrease in groundwater level, pollution by sewage and waste.
Destructions of the soil cover are fixed under the dumps of the quarry and in the path of the movement of quarry equipment. Through the development of a pit and dumps, the primary relief acquires significant changes and the action of forces caused primarily by gravity is activated, aimed at smoothing out negative and positive relief forms.
An increase in the height difference from the dump ridge to the bottom of the quarry and the formation of a significant, pronounced depression of the relief redirects the surface runoff, increases its speed, and reduces infiltration into the soil. Mining development caused drainage of groundwater due to its release to the surface and evaporation.
Air pollution has a bigger scale than other components of negative impacts. The main impact of mining activities is due to emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere as a result of blowing dust from the surface of dumps and emissions from quarry transport and their deposition on the soil and storage of industrial waste. The main pollutants are inorganic dust with content of SiO2 - 65-82% and Al2O3 - 11-21%.
Separately, the article discusses the impact on the environment during multi-components deposits` exploitation, where feldspar concentrates are produced as by-products. Several deposits in Ukraine belong to the group: Bakhtyn (fluorite ores), Nosachivske (titanium-ilmenite ores), Perzhanske deposits of rare metals, Mazurivske (tantalum and niobium ores). Most of them are planned to be mined underground, which saves more land resources in comparison with open workings. The placement of mine shafts and industrial sites for their maintenance requires an area of about 30 hectares. All of them have a complex ore processing with the separation of several concentrates, which necessitates the use of flotation and other reagents. The development of such deposits involves the organization of tailings and circulating water supply of the processing plant.
feldspar deposits, environmental changes, mining, assessment